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Early Release Articles :: 2019, volume 22, no. 2

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This works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Nutritional and phytogenic properties of pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf meal on blood characteristics of growing rabbits
Peter-Damian C. Jiwuba, Ogechi E. Kadurumba
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The study aimed to examine the effect of pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf meal diets on blood characteristics of rabbits. A total of 48, male rabbits were randomly divided into four experimental groups of twelve animals each, with four rabbits constituting a replicate. Each group was assigned to one of the experimental diets containing pawpaw leaf meal (PLM) at 0 % (control), 15 %, 30 % and 45 % for 56 days in a completely randomized design (CRD). Blood samples for analysis were obtained from each replicate and data obtained were analyzed statistically. Results on chemical composition of the PLM revealed 87.67 % DM, 17.30 % CP, 12.86 % CF, 8.88 % ash, 0.81 % EE 47.82 % NFE and 2348.05 Kcal/kg ME. PLM at 15 % inclusion increased (P < 0.05) the packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) when compared with the control. PLM at 30 and 45 % resulted to improved mean cell volume (MCV) concentration. The concentrations of white blood cells were increased (P < 0.05) at the treatment (15 %, 30 % and 45 %) groups. Red blood cell, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, creatinine, AST, ALP, sodium, potassium and chloride remained similar (P > 0.05) across the treatments. Total protein was however best (P > 0.05) at 45 % supplementation. The results indicated that PLM enhanced haemopoiesis and health status of the experimental rabbits and therefore should be incorporated into rabbit feeding to enhance blood formation and health status of the animals.
Keywords: rabbits, pawpaw leaf, Carica papaya, phytogenic compound, haematology and serum biochemistry

Growth response, cost benefit, carcass characteristics and organoleptic properties of pigs fed biscuit dough as a replacement for maize
Taiwo Ojediran, David Bamigboye, Gbemisola Olonade, Ayodeji Ajayi, Isiak Emiola
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The growth performance, economic indices, carcass cuts and organoleptic properties of pigs (large white x landrace, n = 30) fed biscuit dough as a replacement for maize was examined in a 49-day feeding trial. Weaned pigs were randomly allotted to five dietary groups of six pigs each. A maize-soybean meal based diet served as the control (D1) while diets D2, D3, D4, and D5 had 12.5 %, 25.0 %, 37.5 % and 50.0 % biscuit dough respectively as a replacement for maize. The feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed cost per kg, feed cost per kg weight gain, profit per kg weight and economic efficiency of gain (EEG) were significantly influenced (P < 0.05) by the dietary treatments. The feed cost per kg and feed cost per kg weight gain reduced linearly from D1-D5, unlike the profit and EEG which increased linearly. The carcass primal cuts including jowl, boston butt, loin, spare rib, belly, ham, trotters, head and picnic shoulder were significantly different (P < 0.05). The organoleptic properties (meat colour, texture and overall acceptability) were significantly influenced (P < 0.05) by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, feeding up to 37.50 % biscuit dough as a replacement for maize improved the feed conversion ratio. Nevertheless, the use of biscuit dough up to 50 % would result in reduced cost of production, higher profit margin, economic efficiency of gain, greater loin, belly, ham and overall consumer acceptability. Therefore, the use of biscuit dough by pig farmers would improve pig performance and enhance profitability up to 50.00 % replacement for maize.
Keywords: biscuit dough, carcass characteristics, cost, growth performance, sensory properties

Influence of soil texture and compost on the early growth and nutrient uptake of Moringa oleifera Lam
Esther Abosede Ewetola, Yetunde Bunmi Oyeyiola, Folasade Mary Owoade, Mercy Foluso Farotimi
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Soil is the main reservoir of water and nutrients, and thus controls the availability of most essential plant nutrients for crop growth and establishment. Therefore, a study was conducted at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria to investigate the effects of soil texture and compost on early growth of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera). The experiment was a split plot laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main treatment comprises of three soil texture; sand, loamy sand, and clay while the sub-plot treatment was compost at four rates of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 t ha-1 per 10 kg of soil and NPK 15:15:15 at the rate of 90 kg Nha-1. Data on plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter were measured at 2 week interval for 10 weeks. Results showed that Moringa plant produced in loamy sand was superior in plant height, number of leaves and stem girth irrespective of compost applied. At 10 weeks after sowing, fresh shoot weights/pot was 73.3, 31.7, 30.3 g respectively for loamy sand, clay and sand. M. oleifera N uptake in loamy sand was significantly (P < 0.05) greater by 57 and 50%, respectively, than sand and clay. P uptake was significantly higher at 5 ton per ha than the control and other treatments. The study concluded that, combination of loamy sand and 5 ton per ha of compost was suitable for the early growth of M. oleifera.
Keywords: soil texture, compost, Moringa oleifera Lam, growth, nutrient uptake

Effects of seed bed types and weed control methods on the vegetative parameters of long cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutesens L.)
Adijat Temitope Ajibola, Angela Amao
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The type of seed beds and weed control methods play significant role in determining sustainability in vegetable production. Field experiment was conducted during 2015 cropping season to determine the effects of three seed bed types viz: raised bed (RB), flat bed (FB), ridged bed (RB) in combination with four weed control methods viz: hoe weeding (T1), hand weeding (T2), use of Panicum maximum as live mulch (T3) and zero weeding (T4) on the vegetative performance of long cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutesens L). The experiment was arranged as split plot fitted into Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The growth parameters measured were the plant height (cm); number of leaves, number of branches, stem girth (cm), leaf area (cm2), weed density(m-2)and weed biomass (kg/ha). The result revealed that the seed bed types and the weed control methods had significant effect on the parameters measured. However, raised bed hoe weeding (RBT1) enhanced all the parameters measured more than other treatment combinations by recording the highest mean value in all character and also proved to be more effective in reducing weed biomass than other weed control treatment combinations. It was concluded that sowing on raised bed and using hoe weeding as a means of controlling weeds should be recommended for effective performance of pepper for optimum growth.
Keywords: Capsicum frutesens L., long cayenne pepper, seed bed, weed control

The morphological changes of oviductal mucose in oestral cycle of sows
Danka Šťastná
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The aim of this work was to describe microscopic and submicroscopic changes in uterine tube of 40 sows in the estral cycle. Samples of the uterine tube were obtained for histological studies by vivisection from three sections of uterine tube. Samples were fixed for light microscopy (LM) in formaldehyde and in glutaraldehyde paraformaldehyde for scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. They were subsequently processed in the usual manner in the LM and electron microscopic studies laboratories. We did not detect progressive changes in the length of the uterine tube. Unlike the sows‘ weight (2.57 ± 1.12 g or 2.26 ± 0.96 g), the length of the uterine tube was virtually unchanged depending on the stage of the cycle (30.2 ± 2.51 cm in FF or 30.1 ± 2.39 cm in LF). The largest relative volume of the epithelial layer was at the follicular stage of the cycle along the entire uterine tube. The difference varied from 4.99% - isthmus to 13.62% infundibulum between each part. Significant changes were seen between the ciliary and secretory cells during the estral cycle in the various parts of the uterine tube. Ciliary cells dominated throughout the cycle in infindibulum and ampulla, whereas secretory cells in isthmus. Their changes and differentiations are the manifestations of hormonal changes that direct the estral cycle. Submicroscopic changes of cells in the estral cycle have also been described.
Keywords: sows, oviduct –uterine tube, histology
Impact of various moisture regime on selected growth-production characteristics of Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L.
Peter Kovár
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The aim of the experiment was to find out the impact of different moisture regime on selected indicators of the growth and production process of Medicago sativa L. cv. Zuzana and Trifolium pratense L. cv. Poľana. The pot experiment was carried out at the Department of Grassland Ecosystems and Forage Crops, FAFR SUA in Nitra in 2015. There were evaluated two treatments of irrigation: 1st – irrigation once a week and 2nd – irrigation twice a week with a single dose of 300 ml of water per pot. The results of the experiment showed a positive effect on the height of Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. plants (p = 0.006 and p = 0.316), the number of stems (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002), dry phytomass production (p = 0.016 and p = 0.154) and the quantity of harvest residues of evaluated legume forages (p = 0.100 and p = 0.146) with a general more visible effect under irrigation twice a week. By comparison of both species, irrigation twice a week was more effective for Medicago sativa L. on plant height, number of stems and weight of above-ground phytomass, whereas for Trifolium pratense L. only on the weight of harvest residues compared to irrigation once a week.
Keywords: legume forages, growth, production, water deficit
Development of botanical composition of grassland affected by the different exploitation intensity
Miriam Paulisová
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The aim of the work was to analyze the influence of different intensity of grassland exploitation on the development of botanical composition. The experiment was carried out in 2017 and 2018 in locality characterized by a mild climate with an average annual temperature of 9  °C before the experiment was established, the grassland was used for sheep grazing and dominated by Lollium perenne L. The monitoring period was 2017 and 2018. The crops were mown 2x, 3x and 4x, control variant 1, which was not used or fertilized. The botanical composition was evaluated before each cut. It follows from the results obtained at the beginning of the monitoring in 2017 predominantly grass (Lollium perenne L., Poa trivalis L., Poa pratensis L.) prevailed and they maintained their dominant position during the whole vegetation period. Other meadow herbs in 2017 (Achillea millefolium L., Cerastium arvense L.) were found in higher proportion. Legumes were to a lesser extent. In 2018, we reduced the proportion in the botanical groups of other meadow herbs and leguminous plants. Conversely, grasses increased their share compared to 2017. The cover has been reduced mainly in variant 3 (3 mows) and variant 2 (2 mows).
Keywords: botanical composition, different number of cuts, grass, legumes, other herbs, permanent grassland

Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 2019
Last updated : 2019-05-30