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Early Release Articles :: 2017, volume 20, no. 2

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This works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Determination of the efficient enzyme concentration for lytic digestion of vegetative cells but not spores in Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Miroslava Pozgajova, Alica Navratilova, Anna Trakovicka
References in Paper (PDF)
The fact that lytic enzymes such as beta-glucuronidase are capable of cell wall lysis, while the integrity of the spore is not affected, is used in the spore viability tests to investigate meiotic processes. Meiosis as a fundamental feature in all living organisms comprises of a complex tightly linked and mutually dependent processes most of which are scientific targets of many research institutions. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a powerful tool for studies on eukaryotic meiosis. Mating of yeast strains of opposite mating types on nitrogen free medium results in spores production. Whereas not all cells undergo meiosis, some cells persist in vegetative stage even in the absence of nitrogen, this leads to generation of a mixed suspension of vegetative cells and spores. Thus, in order to separate spores from vegetative cells obtained mixture was exposed to lytic enzyme action. This treatment kills vegetative cells without affecting spores. To obtain the best and reproducible results of spore recovery and viability, different lytic conditions were analysed. Obtained results show, that use of beta-glucuronidase as lytic enzyme for random spore analyses in the fission yeast is dose and time dependent.
Keywords: beta-glucuronidase, cell cycle, spore viability, Schizosaccharomycesn pombe


Assessing footprints of natural selection through PCA analysis in cattle
Nina Moravčíková, Veronika Kukučková, Gábor Mészáros, Johann Sölkner, Ondrej Kadlečík, Radovan Kasarda
References in Paper (PDF)
The aim of this study was to determine the population structure and to perform genome-wide scan of footprints of natural selection in cattle using principal component analysis. The applied statistics to identify the SNPs associated with selection pressure focused mainly on the extreme values of FST index. In our study the alternative individual-based approach adopted in the PCAdapt R package has been used. This approach is based on the assumption that markers extremely related to the population structure are also candidates for local adaptation of the population. The genotype data of 350 animals originating from four historically or geographically connected populations (Austrian Pinzgau, Slovak Pinzgau, Brown Swiss, Tyrol Grey) have been used to test this approach in cattle. As expected based on breed's origin the principal component analysis showed the division of animals in to the 3 separate clusters and the eigenvalues suggested to use of K=3 as optimal number. The analysis of genomic regions harbouring signals revealed the candidate genes previously associated with muscle formation and immunity system. Detecting signals of adaptation that were also the targets of historical selection will allow in the future a better understanding of cattle origin.
Keywords: local adaptation, selection, cattle, SNP50 BeadChip, PCAdapt, population subdivision


The most important sires in Pinzgau population
Radovan Kasarda, Veronika Kukučková, Nina Moravčíková
References in Paper (PDF)
The aim of this study was to calculate the inbreeding coefficients of the most used sires in population of Slovak Pinzgau and summarize milk production of theirs daughters as main criterion in present in selection of sires besides pedigree based level of inbreeding of future progeny. The runs of homozygosity (ROH) greater than 4 Mb cover on average 1.9 % of genome, ROH > 8 Mb cover 1.3 % and ROH > 16 Mb cover 0.4. Obtained results were compared to genealogical pedigree analysis; the observed inbreeding was higher than that expected based on pedigree data (0.16 %), despite the fact that ROH > 16 Mb representing recent inbreeding approximately three generations ago. The average milk performance of evaluated Slovak Pinzgau cows has been 5259 kg of milk, 3.6 % of protein and 3.85 % of fat. These results are important for the management of the Pinzgau population in Slovakia due to more precise values of inbreeding obtained as well as knowledge about the ancient inbreeding which was not possible to estimate from the pedigree data.
Keywords: inbreeding, milk performance, runs of homozygosity, Slovak Pinzgau cattle


Effect of ageing process on fungiform papillae density
Tomáš Fekete, Radoslav Židek, Marek Šnirc, Ľubomír Belej
References in Paper (PDF)
Ageing is accompanied by physiological changes in the human oral cavity. These include potential reduction of the fungiform papillae (FP) density which has been associated with impaired taste acuity. Because the studies have demonstrated either contrary or non-significant evidences, we decided to verify the hypothesis about FP reduction and ageing. Total of 150 human living subjects aged 19–87 years participated in the study. The tongues were stained with blue food dye, quantification area with 10 mm diameter was defined, and images of the tongues were captured with digital camera. The number of FP has been scored on each photo by five individual scorers according to a decision tree. The scoring was accomplished in ImageJ open source program using a cell counter plugin. The mean FP density value within all subjects was 18.02 ±15.95 FP per cm-2, the lowest and the highest values were 0.25 ±0.57 FP per cm-2 and 65.00 ±1.66 FP per cm-2 of the tongue tip, respectively. Based on age, the subjects were divided into categories with 6.0 increasing step, in order access effect of ageing on FP densities. Age categories were significantly different in mean FP densities as determined by Welch's F (8, 22.04) = 28.81, P < 0.01). The Games-Howell post hoc test revealed that participants aged 18–24 years had significantly higher FP densities than subjects aged more than 48 years. High degree of intra-groups variance was observed, which could reflect in non-significant differences between the other age groups. Nevertheless, the results were sufficient to support the hypothesis that FP quantity diminish with age.
Keywords: fungiform papillae, density, tongue, ageing


The effect of essential oils on quality and mineral composition of eggshells
Róbert Herkeľ, Branislav Gálik, Daniel Bíro, Michal Rolinec, Milan Šimko, Miroslav Juráček, Henrieta Arpášová, Ondrej Hanušovský
References in Paper (PDF)
The aim of study was to analyse the dietary effect of pumpkin and flaxseed oils on quality and mineral composition of laying hens eggshell. At 38 weeks of age, Lohmann Brown Lite hens were housed in three-floor cages, divided into three dietary groups (C-control, E1-pumpkin oil (3 %), E2-flaxseed oil (3 %)). There were housed six hens in one cage. A total 18 hens were monitored. In the control group hens were fed with standard complete feed mixture for laying hens and in the experimental groups by feed mixtures with supplementation of pumpkin or flaxseed oils. Vitamin E was added into feed mixture in the experimental groups. The experiment lasted 52 days. Twelve eggs from each dietary treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Significant (P < 0.05) differences between control and both experimental groups in eggshell strength and eggshell thickness were found. Pumpkin and flaxseed oil supplementations in feed ratio of layers had positive impact on quality of eggshell. As regards the mineral composition of eggshell, significantly (P < 0.05) lower contents of magnesium, sodium, potassium and copper in experimental groups compared to the control were observed in eggshell. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in content of calcium were detected only between E1 (pumpkin addition) and E2 (flaxseed addition).
Keywords: eggshells, feed mixture, flaxseed oil, minerals, pumpkin oil


Time and place changes concentration of nitrite nitrogen in the southwestern part of the Slovak Republic
Mária Babošová, Jaroslav Noskovič, Jana Ivanič Porhajašová, Alena Rakovská
References in Paper (PDF)
Concentrations of nitrite nitrogen in the water flow Čaradice brook were evaluated in the years 2005-2010. Čaradice brook springs in the mountains of Pohronský Inovec in the southern foot of Drienka hill and it is the right tributary of the Hron River, into which mouth near the village Kozárovce. Its length is 11.1 km. Samples of the water in longitudinal profile of the watercourse were carried out from six sampling sites, on a regular basis, in the second decade of the month. The places of taking samples were localized to include all real sources causing the pollution of watercourse. The average concentration of nitrite nitrogen during the whole period represented a value of 0.05 mg dm-3. Its share in total inorganic forms of nitrogen (N-NO3-, N-NH4+, N-NO2-) represented 1.98%. Depending on the time of sampling the lowest average concentration for the whole period was recorded in February (0.032 mg dm-3). Its highest average concentration was detected in May (0.065 mg dm-3). Seasonal dynamics regularity of concentrations of nitrite nitrogen during the whole monitored period is not reflected. Effect of sampling sites on the nitrite nitrogen concentration in the water flow was as significant as the influence of the month. In the longitudinal profile of the watercourse, we generally observed a tendency of gradual increase in the concentration from the first to the last sampling site. The lowest average concentration of nitrite nitrogen (0.025 mg dm-3) was found in the sampling site, which was located under the forest ecosystem and the highest (0.066 mg dm-3) in the sampling point located below the village Kozárovce. The most significant increase in the average concentration was found in the sampling site located under Čaradice municipalities and Kozárovce, which may indicate contamination of sewage water flow. In the regulation of the Government of the Slovak Republic No. 269/2010 Coll. the recommended value for nitrite nitrogen is 0.02 mg dm-3. Calculated values of 90-th percentile (P90) of this indicator in all sampling sites were lower than the recommended value of government regulations.
Keywords: nitrite nitrogen, water flow, water quality