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Early Release Articles :: 2020, volume 23, no. 3

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This works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi activities and soil microbial properties in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) rhizosphere
Nurudeen Olatunbosun Adeyemi, Muftau Olaoye Atayese, Michael Dare and Adebanke Olubodebe
References in Paper (PDF)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) help in promoting plant growth and mediating key belowground processes, however, AMF responses to the continuous increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is yet elusive. This has led to considerable interest in the impacts elevated CO2 on AMF and belowground processes in recent years. The present study investigated the effect of elevated CO2 on AMF sporulation and root colonization and soil microbial properties in the rhizosphere of soybean. The pot experiment consisted of two levels of CO2 (ambient; 350 ppm and elevated; 550 ppm) and three soybean cultivars (TGx 1440-1E, TGx 1448-2F and TGx 1480-2F) conducted in open top chambers, laid out in randomized complete block design, replicated thrice. The results showed that elevated CO2 increased the AMF spore density and root colonization of the soybean cultivars. Elevated CO2 increased the microbial biomass carbon (34.2% - 45.4%), microbial biomass nitrogen (44.6% - 54.9%), soil nitrogen (30.3 – 50.6%), available phosphorus (20.8 – 45.7%) in the rhizosphere of the soybean cultivars compared to the ambient CO2. These could have resulted in increased plant biomass, pod number, 100-seed weight and seed yield under elevated CO2. From the results of this study, increased atmospheric CO2 regulates AMF activities, microbial properties and improve soybean performance. Thus, this study may help to a better understanding of the responses of AMF and belowground process with increasing atmospheric CO2.
Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, climate change, CO2 enrichment, microbial biomass, open top chambers

Differences in soil organic matter and humus of sandy soil after application of biochar substrates and combination of biochar substrates with mineral fertilizers
Dušan Šrank, Vladimír Šimanský
References in Paper (PDF)

The effort to achieve the sustainable farming system in arable soil led to the intensive search for a new solution but an inspiration can also be found in the application of traditional methods of soil fertility improvement as it is shown in numerous examples in history. Recently many scientific teams have focused their attention on the evaluation of biochar effects on soil properties and crop yields. Since there are a lot of knowledge gaps, especially in explanations how biochar can affect soil organic matter (SOM) and humus substances, we aimed this study at the solution of these questions. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two biochar substrates (B1 – biochar blended with sheep manure, and B2 – biochar blended with sheep manure and the residue from the biogas station) at two rates (10 and 20 t ha-1) applied alone or in combination with mineral fertilizers (Urea was applied in 2018, at rate 100 kg ha-1, and Urea at rate 100 kg ha-1 + AMOFOS NP 12-52 at 100 kg ha-1 were applied in 2019) on the quantity and quality of SOM and humus of sandy soil (Arenosol, Dolná Streda, Slovakia). The results showed that application of the biochar substrates together with mineral fertilizers (MF) had more pronounced effect on the organic matter mineralization in the sandy soil which resulted in low accumulation of soil organic carbon (Corg) and labile carbon compared to biochar substrates treatments without MF. The share of humic substances in Corg significantly decreased by 16, 50, 16 and 24% in B1 at 10 t ha-1, B1 at 20 t ha-1, B2 at 10 t ha-1 and B2 at 20 t ha-1 treatments, respectively, compared to the control. A similar tendency was observed for biochar substrates treatments + MF, compared to MF control. The carbon content of humic substances (CHS) was equal to 4.40 – 5.80 g kg-1 and the biochar substrates had statistically significant influence on CHS content. On average, there was a smaller decrease of CHS in B1 at rate 10 t ha-1 than at rate 20 t ha-1 and no effect of B2 compared to control. The carbon content of fulvic acid (CFA) was 9% higher in B1 at 10 t ha-1, and 20 t ha-1, 47% higher in B2 at 10 t ha-1 and 17% higher in B2 at 20 t ha-1 compared to control. As a result of biochar substrates + MF application, the reduction in CFA was observed. The results showed a decrease of CHA:CFA ratio with association to biochar substrates alone application compared to control on one hand, and a wider of CHA:CFA ratio in biochar substrates + MF treatments in comparison to MF control on the other hand. Humus stability was increased in biochar substrates alone treatments compared to control, on the other hand, compared to MF control, the application of biochar substrates + MF resulted in a lower humus stability.
Keywords: carbon sequestration, humus quality, Arenosol, biochar, Effeco

Phenotypic plasticity of leaf shape in selected and semi-domesticated genotypes as new tool of Argania spinosa L Skeels Breeding
Ilham Rahmouni, Siham Oumouss, Ghizlane Tobi, Mohammed Bouksaim, Yasmina Elbahloul
References in Paper (PDF)

Leaves are part of the plant organs that are important to sustain its life. These organs are sensitive to climate changes and may present phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. However, affirmation of the leaves morphological plasticity and their regulation in different environments is still little studied up to date. In the present research, we evaluated performance of 20 different groups of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels genotypes (half-sibling). Each group contains 3 half-sibs. Genotype × environment interactions (GxE) were evaluated as well, for shape and size leaves. To perform this, geometric morphometric principles were applied to analyze genotypes morphology in three locations (Central, North-Western and South-Western of Morocco). Univariate and multivariate analysis was used for data analysis. Results showed significant variation of symmetric and asymmetric components for genotypes, half-sibling and location with relatively high variation coefficient (ca 60 %). Shape and size differences among genotypes, suggest that they were the main source in leaf morphology variation. Canonical Variate Analysis of leaf shapes reveals that the regions are clearly distinct from each other. For symmetric component analysis, Mahalanobis distances values among locations reached 35.53 between South-Western and North-Western locations, 21.88 North-Western and Central locations and 18.29 for South-Western and Central location. The differentiation between the groups using the Canonical Variations value showed a significant effect of the environment on the studied argan tree genotypes. Small leaves and narrow blades were observed in Central location compared to others. However, leaves originated from South-Western location had mainly an ovate shape. The same genotypes presented a high spectrum of shape variation varying from obovate to ovate in the other regions. This study highlights the strong correspondence between leaf morphology and genotype within different environments, and demonstrates that GxE interaction shave an impact to take into consideration in breeding programs.
Keywords: adaptation, Argania spinosa, environment, genotype, geometric morphometrics, leaf morphology

The impact of soil compaction monitored by DNA markers in barley
Katarína Ražná, Vladimír Rataj, Miroslav Macák, Jana Galambošová
References in Paper (PDF)

Plants are often exposed to adverse environmental conditions that can significantly interfere with their genomic response. Soil compaction induced by heavy field machinery represents a major problem for crop production mainly due to restricted root growth and penetration into soil and therefore reduced water and nutrient uptake by the plants. Tested hypotheses were to declare whether the plant's genome responds to soil compaction and whether the microRNA-based markers are suitable to determine this response. A long term field scale experiment was established in 2009 where different levels of soil compaction are researched from the soil and crop point of view. The analyzed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants were collected during the growing season in 2019. The effect of soil compaction was analysed by four different DNA-based markers corresponding to miRNA sequences of dehydratation stress-responsive barley miRNAs (hvu-miR156, and hvu-miR408) and nutrition-sensitive markers (hvu-miR399 and hvu-miR827), within the leaf, stem and root tissues of barley plants. Our preliminary data support hypotheses that plant genome response was tissue-specific due to significant induction of the biomarkers to dehydratation and nutrition stress. The most affected part of the plant by dehydration, were roots and lack of nutrient supply was most pronounced on leaves.
Keywords:abiotic stress; crop yield; miRNAs; root growth

Sensitivity of Cercospora beticola to fungicides in Slovakia
Kamil Hudec, Milan Mihók, Tibor Roháčik, Ľudovít Mišľan
References in Paper (PDF)

The fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc. is the one of the most important pathogens on the sugar beet. The frequent application of fungicides with the same mode of action increase a risk of development of resistant strains of the pathogen. Occurrence of C. beticola resistant strains has been never researched in Slovakia. In this work, C. beticola isolates were collected from 10 localities of Slovakia and analysed for fungicide resistance in laboratory conditions. Nine fungicides with different mode of action were tested – trifloxystrobin + cyproconazole, kresoxim-methyl + epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin + cyproconazole, thiophanate-methyl + tetraconazole, thiophanate-methyl, prochloraz + propiconazole, picoxystrobin, tetraconazole, and difenoconazole. The results confirmed, that occurrence of fungicide resistance in C. beticola population was established in Slovakia. Different criteria of assessment of fungicide resistance (based on EC50 and on growth rate – inhibition percentage) showed slightly different results, but both criteria confirmed resistant C. beticola strains to thiophanate-methyl, picoxystrobin and difenoconazole. Fields with higher frequency of application of these fungicides significantly supported the development of resistant strains. Assessment of any C. beticola strains have not confirmed reduced sensitivity to active ingredients tetraconazole and prochloraz + propiconazole. The lowest level of risk of fungicide resistance was confirmed in the locality Oslany. It is very important to focus on anti-resistant strategy and reduce of using fungicides on localities, where the occurrence of resistant C. beticola strains was confirmed - Dolné Saliby (thiophanate-methyl and picoxystrobin) and Senec (picoxystrobin and difenoconazole).
Keywords: sugar beet, Cercospora beticola, fungicides, in vitro, resistance, Slovakia

Changes in growth-production parameters of Lolium perenne`s L. turf after application of concentrated polysulfide fertilizer
Peter Kovár, Ľuboš Vozár, Peter Hric
References in Paper (PDF)

The changes in growth rate, daily production of above-ground phytomass and lawn density of turfgrass after application of fertilizer based on polysulfide (Sulka NKS+) were evaluated in Nitra (the Slovak Republic) climatic conditions. The polysulfide preparation was applied 2-times, 4-times and 6-times during the vegetation period in 2015 – 2017 and the effect was compared with a zero control. Stimulatory effect of Sulka NKS+ was shown in the average daily gain of grass height and average daily gain of above-ground phytomass weight with the most visible expression in the 2nd and 3rd year of cultivation. For the thickening lawn index was found out inhibitory effect of polysulfide fertilizer. The average values of the first two characteristics (average daily gains of grass height and weight of above-ground phytomass) have also increased with the increasing number of Sulka NKS+ applications.
Keywords: polysulfide, Lolium perenne, average daily gain of height, average daily gain of weight, lawn density, turfgrass

Changes in production and reproduction traits in population of the Slovak Spotted Cattle
Jozef Bujko, Juraj Candrák, Július Žitný, Radovan Kasarda Mailbr /> References in Paper (PDF)

The study aimed to examine the analyses of the trend in the numbers of dairy cows, production and reproductive traits in the population the Slovak Spotted cattle for period 2010 to 2019. The number of Slovak Spotted dairy cows is maintained on a relatively stable level in recent years. There was a decrease in the number of animals (12 428 in 2010), but not as strong as after 1990 (85 518). From 2017 number of animals is rising from 14,062, to 14,150 (2018) and 14,627 (2019), respectively. As compared to 2010 an increase of 13.15 % in 2017, 13.86 % and 17.68 %, in 2018 and 2019 respectively was observed. Population size raised from 113.15 % (2017)to 117.68 % in 2019 respectively. The average annual increase in milk production between the years 2010 to 2019 was + 157.5 kg of milk (total 1,575 kg of milk), + 5.8 kg of fat (total 58 kg of fat) and + 6.1 kg of protein (total 61 kg of protein). Positive growth of milk production in recent years is slightly comparable with the trend of breeding improvement.
Keywords: Slovak Spotted, dairy cows, traits of milk production, reproduction traits, population size

Amino acid, fatty acid and chemical composition of meat and fat from entire males, castrates and gilts
Ivan Bahelka, Ondrej Bučko, Katarína Hozáková, Roman Stupka, Jaroslav Čítek, Emília Hanusová, Martina Gondeková
References in Paper (PDF)

Forty-two pigs, entire males, surgical castrates and gilts, was randomly selected for the experiment. After reaching the average live weight of 105 kg, pigs were slaughtered. Significant differences (P<0.05) in contents of water and crude fat in muscle between entire males and castrates (74.44 vs 73.93 %, 2.52 vs 3.14 %), resp. of cholesterol between entire males, gilts and castrates (0.31, 0.33 vs 0.41 %) were found. Significantly higher contents (P<0.05) of almost the all amino acids in entire males and gilts compared to castrates were observed. In muscle, castrates had more oleic and eicosanoic fatty acid than entire males, and vaccenic than gilts whilst gilts and entire males had higher content of linolenic acid than castrates (P<0.05). In adipose tissue, entire males had lower content (P<0.05) of myristic, stearic, palmitic, and total saturated fatty acids than castrates or both castrates and gilts (1.39 vs 1.45 %, 14.88 vs 16.90 %, 25.41 vs 26.83 and 26.27 %, 43.40 vs 46.70 and 45.53 %). At the same time, they showed greater amounts of oleic (36.71 vs 34.95 %), total monounsaturated (43.58 vs 41.35 %), linoleic (10.29 vs 9.45 and 9.56 %), linolenic (0.65 vs 0.59 %), total polyunsaturated (12.06 vs 11.06 %), n-6 (10.69 vs 9.83 %) and n-3 (0.78 vs 0.71 and 0.72 %) fatty acids than castrates or both castrates and gilts. Also, PUFA/SFA ratio was more desirable in entire males than those of castrates and/or gilts (0.28 vs 0.24 and 0.25). Based on these results, meat and adipose fat from entire males seems to be more beneficial from the human health point of view.
Keywords: pigs, amino and fatty acids, chemical composition, pork quality

Genetic and phenotypic trends for weights of major beef and dual-purpose cattle breeds in Slovak Republic
Ján Tomka, Ján Huba, Milan Kumičík
References in Paper (PDF)

Genetic evaluation of beef cattle in Slovakia started in first years of this century. After the first decade of running the routine evaluations it is important to review the progress made and to discuss the further development. The aim of this paper was to compile and deliver genetic and phenotypic trends in order to review importance of evaluated traits with respect to four major beef (Charolais, Limousine) and dual-purpose breeds (Slovak Pinzgau, Slovak Spotted). The study showed different progress made across the breeds. Higher genetic progress was observed in Charolais purebreds compared to Limousine counterparts. Moreover, almost similar progress to that in Charolais was observed in dual-purpose Slovak Pinzgau cattle. On the other hand no progress was observed in Slovak Spotted purebreds. Results also showed higher progress in bulls compared to cows. Phenotypic trends showed reserves for improvement in Charolais and closing to breed standards in Limousine. In dual-purpose breeds improvement was shown only in Slovak Pinzgau, while no improvement or decrease in actual weights was shown in Slovak Spotted purebreds
Keywords: beef cattle, dual-purpose cattle, trends, growth, genetic evaluation

Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 2020
Last updated : 2020-07-03