Effects of different ecological environments on phenological and cultural parameters of organically cultivated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril.)

Éva Hunyadi Borbélyné, Mihály Földi


This paper summarizes research results on organic soya production conducted at three ÖMKi on-farm sites in 2014 in Hungary. Trial sites were located in West-Transdanubia (Tornyiszentmiklós) and the East-Hungarian Plain (Földes and Hajdúböszörmény). Objective of the research was to determine the specific varieties of soybean which favour these areas. Five varieties were tested (Prestopro from the early, Growpro, Hipro, Royalpro and Pannónia Kincse from the medium maturity group). Pannónia Kincse is a Hungarian breed that is dominantly used in East-Hungary. The other varieties have been bred in the USA. The test farms used their usual agronomical practices (tab. 1). During the trial period we recorded weather conditions (daily precipitation, max-min. temperature), and the phenological parameters of plants: average number the pods per plant, average number of seed per pod, average number of branches per plant, and average plant heights. Yield and oil protein content of seeds were measured after harvest. In August and September extreme weather conditions occurred in West-Transdanubia (tab. 2); plants were damaged by flooding on the test site. On the other areas typical droughty periods occurred in the beginning of summer. At Hajdúböszörmény there was no possibility of interrow-cultivation because of the narrow row spacing (35 cm). The weed-coverage at this site was above 50 % at harvest period. At Tornyiszentmiklós the node number was the lowest despite plant height, and yield was also less than at the other sites. Relying on these data (tab. 3) we can state that there were considerable differences between the average yields of the research areas and the yields of the tested varieties. The differences of protein content were less remarkable. The yield of Prestopro was lowest among tested varieties on East Hungarian sites. Most favourable variety in 2014 was Pannónia Kincse regarding both yield (0.7-1.6 t ha-1) and protein content (average of variety: 35,6 %).

Keywords: soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merril, varieties, organic production, yield, protein content

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